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Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes, is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is main source of energy and comes mainly from digested food. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose get into the cells to be used for growth and energy.

Most people with type 2 diabetes have two problems: insulin resistance-a condition in which muscle, liver, and fat cells do not use insulin properly-and reduced insulin production by the pancreas. As a result, glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body, never fulfilling its role as the body's main source of fuel.

[Prevalence]

Type 2 diabetes is on the rise worldwide. The International Diabetes Federation reports that more than 400 million people were living with diabetes as of 2015. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 90 percent of people around the world who have diabetes have type 2.

[Treatment]

Some people who have type 2 diabetes can achieve their target blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone, but many also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. There are several classification of medication for T2D diabetes including GLP-1 receptor agonists, Insulin therapy, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors.

Exenatide is a synthetic 39-amino-acid peptide of a hormone found in Gila monster saliva in 1992 and belongs to a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), which mimics incretin hormone and has biological properties similar to human intrinsic GLP-1, but has a much longer half-life.
Exenatide acts via binding to its receptor and:

① stimulates insulin secretion of insulin, and lowers blood glucose;
② transduces satiety signal, inhibits gut motility, delays gastric emptying, and loses weight.

Exenatide regulates the secretion of insulin and glucagon in a glucose-dependent manner, thereby assisting the body to maintain glucose homeostasis without side effects such as hypoglycemia and weight gain which are common in traditional anti-hyperglycemic drugs.
Long-acting Exenatide is considered as one of the leading anti-diabetic drugs due to its better efficacy and less side effects. Peptron’s long-acting Exenatide is weekly or once every two weeks injectable forms, and clinical phase II completed in T2D patients.

Superiority of Long-Acting Exenatide to short-acting comparators

Efficacy

- Greater HbA1c Reduction

- Greater Body Weight Loss

Patient Compliance

- Less Frequent Injection

- Less Frequent Blood Glucose Measurements

Safety

- Lower Risk of Hypoglycemia

[Mechanism of Injectable GLP-1 Incretin Mimetics on the Pancreas]

[Action of Injectable GLP-1 Incretin Mimetics on the Pancreas]